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Promises and offerings in the Cuban religiosity
Autor: Gerardo E. Chávez Spínola | Fuente: CUBARTE | 05 de Agosto 2013
Offerings and religious promises constitute demonstrations traditionally resorted to by the believers, in almost all lines of devotional thinking in the Mayor de las Antillas (refers to Cuba). For many Cubans these expressions of popular religiosity, beyond the recognition of a received favor, have been a formal expression of sacred alliance between the practitioner and the deity.

This is why promises and offerings have always been a link to a direct relationship between the miraculous act from where it came, the divinity solicited and the person for whom this act has been carried out. Although in the wide range of beliefs implicated in what has become known as popular religiosity, this demonstration of fervor is not only produced in favor of the omnipotents, rather it also reaches human personages existing in real life, canonized by the will of certain social groups. In another national context outside the framework of religion, other protagonists who have reached the archetypical threshold of the respected hero, to those to whom offerings are taken (usually floral) on the anniversary of their disappearance or birth, that which contributes to keeping them alive in the social memory.

The floral offerings given to those who have passed away, for some people simply refer to traditional customs that show respect and remembrance for those who are no longer present. Yet for others they signify intents to reestablish the lost tie between the person offering and those who have made their last transition. And so, cemeteries are always a setting open to offerings, although at times they are not always floral. In the Colón cemetery of Havana, many tombs receive devotional offerings materialized in peculiar representations.

Offerings at the tomb of Leocadia the Medium

For many years, in Cuba, “mediumism” was condemned as heresy by the Catholic Church.  Almost all over the world, science also refused to acknowledge its existence. “Nevertheless, today parapsychologists have carried out many true scientific studies about the subject in many parts of the world and not just a few of the highest religious representatives, have since stopped being radically opposed to the phenomenon. Fortunately today in all Cuba, the medium is respected by a large number of groups which make up Cuban society, although it is not publicly recognized.

Generally, those who possess this gift develop and use it with humility, generosity, selflessness and skill, they usually make the world see the usefulness of this natural perception. “Among the latter was the médium, Leocadia Pérez Herrera. The Brother José, the spiritual entity who served through her, could adopt different phases; from guide and counselor of doctors, scientists, teachers, students, even a Congolese Negro, but we must point out that even José, who was a priest in real life, as Leocadia both professed the Catholic religion. Our medium liked flowers and most of all classical music, mostly violin. In Leocadia´s home, where the spiritual sessions took place, on a certain day an oil portrait of Brother José was hung as a miraculous offering. Just like he looked in life, the work was that of one of his followers to whom, according to some versions, the priest appeared several years after having passed away in order to be painted so that his devotees could observe their guide. The work was shown to various officials of the Church and all claimed that it was an extraordinary likeness, beside the fact that the painter never had the opportunity to see his image before. There are accounts affirming that on many occasions photos were taken of the painting of Brother José, but they always came out veiled, only stains could be seen on the paper. Upon Leocadia´s death, she was entombed with this portrait, as was her wish. Important people as well as ordinary townspeople were equally attended by the famous medium. Those who came in need of a consultation were never charged a single penny. And those who knew her in life assure that, all the people seeking consultations left satisfied and thankful for her recommendations”. (1)

The story of Leocaldia and Brother José in time became a popular legend, it was later added “the splendid funeral, where even Bola de Nieve, the great Cuban singer-composer was present, according to research conducted by the cemetery historian, Teresita Aloy. Burried in Colón cemetery lies, who was once in life Leocadia, since June 3 of 1962, in the quarter SE 18 Common Field. The medium won the praise of her followers, for her skilled predictions and selfless consultations, she was the object of sincere worship by her followers after death, a showing of faith that was maintained until 2005, including those in her debt, residents from Miami and Puerto Rico, who would go to the tomb on their visits. Every 19th of March, the day of San José, the faithful devotees would arrive at the pantheon seeking help, advice, or to give thanks, as if she were a saint, depositing flowers while a great violin concert played as an offering, played with such fervor that the notes were able to reach frequencies so high they, according to them, could reach her where she was on high”. (2)

Offerings to “La Milagrosa del Cementerio” (The Miracle Worker of the Cemetery)

A beautiful white marble statue by the famous Cuban sculptor José Villalta de Saavedra, that perpetuates the memory of a mother with child in her arms, whose face was sculpted from a photo of the protagonist of this legend, represents one of the most valuable works of art in the entire Colón cemetery. “The tomb fills up with offerings related to motherhood; baby clothes by the dozen, diapers, bibs, wind chimes, baby spoons, gum scrapers, ribbons and toys, that the believers leave on the white headstone acquired years ago by José Vicente Adot Rabell, in quarter NE 28 of the Common Field of the Havana cemetery. The givers, generally women who want to be mothers, kneel in worship around the tomb, in order to solicit the miracle”. (3) These same followers have created rituals, where they draw near the marble figure to touch it while at the same time touching their womb, praying and crossing themselves in a devotional act.

This scene repeats itself everyday at the Cristóbal de Colón Cemetery, located in the City of Havana. In her these gift bearers harbor the version of “a woman who died in childbirth and was buried with the baby at her feet”. “The legend was created some years later, that upon exhumation, the body was preserved and the mummified baby was held in her arms. From this moment on, there were many visits by believers to the tomb, who were assured that their prayers were heard and granted by the deceased. The true story is attributed to a beautiful girl from Havana who died on May 3rd of 1901 in the capital, from a complication during childbirth. Her wedding was held on the 25th of June of 1900 together with her sister who was also to depart this world shortly thereafter, during childbirth. Amelia Goiri de Adot, daughter of the marquis of Balboa, was 22 years old when she died and it happened just one year after her marriage to Sr. Vicente Adot Rabell, who returned from the war of 1895 with the rank of captain”. (4)

Vicente was so in love with his wife that her death turned his world upside down. “He mourned her until he died and visited her tomb several times a day, hitting the cold marble with one of the stone rings, in order to waken his love and talk at length with her, having covered the tombstone with flowers. Upon leaving he did so without ever turning his back on the statue, this is possibly what made people notice. These demonstrations of deep pain, together with the evocations of the beautiful statue, perhaps gave rise to the legend. One thing is for certain, “La Milagrosa” is profoundly worshipped by hundreds of believers who, thankful for the concessions to their pleas, place these offerings, flowers and on many occasions, monetary donations. However..., the tomb of Amelia Goiri is never alone. With immense love, and as a work of faith with the legal authorization from the family of the deceased, someone who is eternally thankful for the bestowing of miracles, on a mission that came to purify their life, sees to it that these donations have a beneficent and noble end. The aforementioned offerings are transferred in satchels, by these tender hands performing the work of God, to the congregation of Mother Maria Teresa of Calcutta, to its seat in Vedado (a residential district in Havana). With extreme humility, the author of these charities, who for years has guarded this sacred place and its legend, has asked that their name be omitted (5)

But the case of Amelia Goire, La Milagrosa del Cementerio, is not the only case of its kind in the world. An investigation carried out by Profesor Rafael Briones Gómez, head of the department of anthropology at the University of Granada, Spain, expounds the reverence in popular devotion of “el Señor del Cementerio de Granada”. “It deals with a small tomb in the ground, with a small cross made of white stone at the foot of which stands a snow white stone statue, representing a man of normal stature, with locks of hair, fallen arms and the head slightly inclined looking up, in an attitude of reverence toward the cross. Said symbol is always ringed with numerous flowers and offerings at its base. A legendary halo of holiness and miracle surrounds this grave”. (6)

Various versions of the origin of this adoration exist. “All coincide in that before this tomb of the “Señor del Cementerio” and starting with the devotion of the cult for the dead which is practiced at the beginning of November and sporadically throughout the year, some women or, according to others, a family felt attracted to this tomb and by this statue, prayed, confessed and asked for favors which were granted. And so the fame of the milagroso (miraculous one) began to spread”. “Another detail to keep in mind in the still short tradition of this religious phenomenon is the day designated for the ritual, which consists fundamentally in the prayer of the “penitential rosary” directed by a layman, Manuel “The Butcher”, a man of some sixty five years and to which a group of some thirty people attend. The day is Friday. At the beginning it was only the first Friday of every month, but later on, it extended to all the Fridays of the year. The first people to begin to climb up, were the same that went to pray on the first Fridays of the month at the Cristo de los Favores (Christ of the Favors), in the Campo del Príncipe (Field of the Prince)”. (7)

Profesor Briones affirms that on top of the tomb there is always a profusion of “flowers, candles, votives, money, and above all the promises that people make that are more difficult to see because they are an immaterial element of religiosity which are in the hearts and minds of the devoted”. “Things are offered and given to the Señor del Cementerio (Lord of the Cemetery), a condition and in exchange of receiving a favor or a miracle. The ritual combines objects and orations with a series of gestures of great significance: embrace the “Lord”, kiss him, pass the hand over part of the statue (face, eyes, arms) and after, pass the hand over the corresponding part of the body as such. They usually repeat this same operation with a flower, preferably a carnation, which is later taken to their houses, as if it were the remains. Throughout the celebration they remain on their knees, directing the rosary, very intoned and with much devotion. The rest of the people continue responding. They sing and ask for the dead. When the rosary ends, they recite a series of orations, through which the group “the leaders” make their pitch inviting to come every Friday”. (8)

The promise as an alliance

Generally, in almost every place in the world where these actions of faith occur, promises and offerings “attempt to make the divinity intercede, solving the problems which cause man pain and suffering. The nature of the relationship is basically religious since it implies awareness of the inferiority of man and the omnipotence of God, the Virgin and the saints. In the supposed case in which the favor solicited is not received, the offer bearer can break his relationship with God because complying with the promise is conditioned on the fulfillment of the favor”. (9) But in Cuba, it generally happens is that this promise, is also converted into a sacred alliance between the practitioner and his deity. That means that for him, his nonobservance not only breaks this tie forever, rather that additionally, as a consequence of this lack of fulfillment, he can receive the most terrible of punishments.

On the other hand, there are believers and practitioners who by way of their personal fervor, believe that the more outstanding and difficult the request made of the deity, the harder and more difficult the demonstration of testimonial gratitude in his promise must be. This gives way to the existence of payers of promises who by their own will, submit themselves to corporal punishment at times bound to real tortures. With this public and notoriously expressed action, besides the indicated acknowledgement, they also demonstrate their testimony of the most profound devotion to their deity.

The payers of promises of El Rincón

In the municipality of Santiago de las Vegas, in the province of Havana, lies the small locality of El Rincón, where the National Sanctuary of San Lázaro is located, where many people come during the 16th and 17th days of December, ever larger multitudes of believers in pilgrimage. A great part of these are payers of promises to this miraculous saint. “Hundreds of the curious and tourists concentrate on the path from metropolitan Havana, to the aforementioned sacred space. But it must stand out that, among popular statuary, the divinity to whom the most homage is paid almost intimate and personal, whose image is found in the homes of the faithful devotees and that which is found at the feet of the most needy who extend their hand to passersby, does not coincide with the canonized bishop Lázaro, of the national sanctuary; nor with the African Babalú-Ayé of the animist cults which share the same doctrine, notwithstanding having assumed underlying characteristics from both religious cultures, overlapped in one sole personality. The legitimate popular tradition as a saint, to Lázaro of the dogs and crutches, within the national context, under the indisputable nickname of: the miraculous “San Lázaro”. (10)

Some studies suggest that this divinity is a new popular invention of the Cuban nation, which is considered to be extremely miraculous in curing wounds, skin diseases and above all, ailments that affect ambulatory movements, likewise to concede the satisfaction of other spiritual and material needs”. (11)

The ambience of that sacrosanct scenario; the faithful in oration; the payers of promises, in conjunction with the throng of many colors and compact, constitute one of the most impressive religious happenings of Cuba. “The congregation assembled there, is conformed of many people of different religious creeds, of all races, ages and social classes. Some arrive at the place with candle offerings, money and/or flowers, to beg favors of the saint; others, as payers of promises; also likewise there are many curiosity seekers or those who try to understand what is happening there”. (12)

The spectacle of those debtors of promises begins generally from the 16th of December, when those who want to spend the night and the early morning hours at the place, begin to arrive. At dawn on the 17th, the faithful and curious have already begun to form lines on both sides of the road that leads to the sanctuary and with the first lights of dawn, marks the opening of that extraordinary march of souls driven by their beliefs. It starts with a trickle of two or three punished pilgrims, separated, unrelated but perceiving themselves as united by faith. In a short while there are ten or twelve, also disperse, each preoccupied with paying his personal debt. Later there are twenty or so and after that, they arrive by the hundreds. Nobody coordinates this pilgrimage, no organization, no cult, no church organizes it. There is no one who calls or summons these pilgrims, other than their own profound conviction of faith.

Many people participate in this pilgrimage walking the 7 or 8 kilometers which separate the village El Rincón, from the temple, many without shoes, with some purple clothing or they dress in very simple clothing made from jute sacks, these are identified with San Lázaro. Others come in horse drawn carts and also in cars. The devotees come from all roads leading in and incorporate themselves. Many drag themselves, some come on their knees others with their feet or hands tied and there are some with both extremities tied, generally carrying or dragging some weight. There are those who tow heavy rocks for many kilometers. There are also women with babies on their backs hurting their bodies in one way or another while they advance on their knees along with the crowd which always makes way for them. Then after mid day some men make their pilgrimage, whether withstanding the cold or under the blazing sun, with bare torso and barely covered with a coarse jute sack, some flog themselves while they walk, drag themselves or move forward on their lacerated knees. In this manner the interior and personal image of each devotee is revealed, in its most communicative external demonstration. Since each one of them needs public confirmation of their actions. The act of faith also offers public communication, notoriety and shows the miracle received.

Promises and offerings as metaphors

In the expression of religiosity, promises and offerings come from the deepest roots of human behavior. From the anthropological viewpoint “they have great historic and ethnic value and they are a source of knowledge especially valuable in the search for understanding about the subject of beliefs. Although they not only teach us about religious attitudes, but also about material culture from present and past periods, that in another way might have disappeared or would not be easy to reconstruct”. (13)

In this way promises and offerings in essence, independent from the tradition that they come from, inspiration to which they consecrate and the train of thought in which they process or execute, have always been and will always be elements, that need the ritual or ceremony as a stage, both identical in meaning and origin, although in appearance they are manifested in the most varied and changing ways. Both then, will be symbolic actions and symbols; therefore in their own right, metaphors consecrated by different traditions; intermediate allegories between two realities, one known and the other to be discovered; and therefore, vehicles in the search of knowledge of the venerated, sublime and eternal mystery of the sacred.


Notes

(1)Rivero Glean, Manuel y Chávez Spínola, Gerardo E.: Catauro de seres míticos y legendarios en Cuba. Ed. por Centro de Investigación y Desarrollo de la Cultura Cubana Juan Marinello, La Habana, 2005, pp. 318-319.
(2)Ibídem, pp. 318-319.
(3)Ibídem, pp. 376-379.
(4)Ibídem, pp. 376-379.
(5)Ibídem, pp. 376-379.
(6) Briones Gómez, Rafael: Aproximación antropológica a tres casos de religiosidad marginal en la provincia de Granada. Gaceta de Antropología, 1995, 11, artículo 09.
(7)Ibídem.
(8)Ibídem.
(9) Sarnago, Elena: Promesas y ofrendas religiosas: los exvotos. Diccionario de Mitos y Leyendas - Equipo NAyA http://www.cuco.com.ar/
(10) Rivero Glean, Manuel y Chávez Spínola, Gerardo E.: Ob. cit., pp. 79-80.
(11)Ibídem, pp. 314-315.
(12)Ibídem, pp. 314-315.
(13) Sarnago, Elena: Ob. cit.

Daniel Fenton (Cubarte)

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  • Catherine Murphy and Jorge Luna
  • Cathy Rose A. Garcia
  • Cecilia Crespo
  • Cecilia Crespo (Estudiante de periodismo)
  • Cecilia Crespo (Journalism Student)
  • Celeste Fraser Delgado
  • Celia Haydée Lamorú Hernández
  • Celia Medina LLanusa
  • Celia Pérez
  • Cesar Andres Caldas
  • Cesar Cervantes
  • César Clark
  • Cesar Galvez
  • Cesar Santos
  • Cesar Valle
  • Charles Masters
  • Charlotte Higgins
  • Charly Morales Valido
  • Charlyne V. Shaub
  • Charmaine Picard
  • Cheryl LaBash
  • Chow How Ban
  • Chris Shull
  • Christie Taylor
  • Cintio Vitier Bolaños
  • Cira Rodriguez Cesar
  • Cira Romero
  • Circles Robinson
  • Circles Robinson *
  • Ciro Bianchi Ross
  • Claire Allfree
  • Claralizt Flores
  • Claudia Arteaga Pérez
  • Claudia Bringas Reyes
  • Claudia Gomez
  • Claudia Korol
  • Claudia Pérez Navarro
  • Claudia Pis Guirola
  • Claudio Peláez Sordo
  • Cleanel Ricardo Tamayo
  • Cleo Murphy
  • Clifford Bishop
  • Clive Davis
  • Clive Freeman
  • Clotilde Serrano
  • Conor Clarke
  • Consuelo Casanova
  • Consuelo Casanova and Gretchen Martínez
  • Consuelo Casanova y Gretchen Martínez
  • Cormac Larkin
  • Cory López
  • Cosette Celecia
  • Cosette Perez
  • Courtland Milloy
  • Crisálida Morales
  • Cristian Paventti
  • Cristina Escobar Domínguez
  • Cristóbal Álamo Pérez
  • CubaEmba Czech Republic
  • Curtis Morgan
  • Dagoberto Arestuche Fernández
  • Dai Liem Lafá Armenteros
  • Daicar Saladrigas González
  • Daicar Saladrigas González
  • Dailyn Ruano Martínez
  • Daima Cardoso Valdés
  • Daineris Peña Edmond
  • Dainerys Machado
  • Dainerys Machado Vento
  • Dairon Miranda
  • Dale Bass
  • Dalia Acosta
  • Damián Donestévez
  • Damián Estrada
  • Danae Águila Gutiérrez
  • Danae C. Diéguez
  • Danay Galleti and Mario Cremata, Journalism Students
  • Danay Galletti Hernandez and Mario Cremata Ferran
  • Danay Olivera Cárdenas
  • Dania Marrero Carralero
  • Dania Mendoza Gómez
  • Dania Sánchez Parra
  • Dania Sánchez Vine
  • Daniel Alejandro
  • Daniel Alejandro Benítez Quiñones
  • Daniel Chavarría
  • Daniel Díaz Mantilla
  • Daniel Salas Gonzalez
  • Daniel Salas Gónzalez
  • Daniel Taboada Espiniella
  • Daniela Grass
  • Danielle Blain
  • Danielle Laurencio Goméz (journalism student)
  • Danny Glover and Saul Landau
  • Darelia Díaz Borrero
  • Dariela Gámez Paz (Student of Journalism)
  • David Campbell
  • David Cazones y Vanessa Bauza
  • David Comissiong
  • David Cuen
  • David Mateo
  • David Núnez
  • David Ponce
  • David Rodríguez
  • David Rubien
  • David Sokolec
  • David Valenzuela
  • Dayami Interián García
  • Dayana Ferradás
  • Dayana Ferradás
  • Daydee Díaz Fleites
  • Daylina Morales Escobar
  • Dayma Cardoso Valdés
  • Daymaris Taboada
  • Daymisí Contreras García, Student of Journalism and Yolanda Ferrera Sosa
  • Daynelis Rodríguez Peña
  • Daynelis Rodriguez Peña
  • Daynelis Rodriguez Peña
  • Daynet Rodriguez Sotomayor
  • Dean Luis Reyes
  • Debora Rey
  • Deisy Francis Mexidor
  • Deisy Mexidor
  • Delicia Leyva Morales
  • Dena Burroughs
  • Deneb González, Journalism student and Yanetsy León
  • Deni Extremera
  • Denis María Reyes
  • Derek Evers
  • Desiderée Socarrás
  • Desirée Socarrás and Eilén Sosín
  • Diana Ferreiro and Laurent Guevara
  • Diana Valido Cernuda
  • Diane Parkes
  • Diany Santa Cruz Hernández
  • Diego M Vidal
  • Dilbert Reyes Rodríguez
  • Dino A. Allende Gonzalez
  • Diony Sanabia Abadia
  • Dolores Guerra López
  • Dora Pérez Sáez
  • Dora Perez Saez and Jose Luis Estrada Betancourt
  • Doris Calderón Terry
  • Doris Hernández Fernández
  • Douglas Heselgrave
  • Dr. Clementina E. Adams, Professor, Clemson University
  • Dr. Efrain Amador and Master Doris Oropesa
  • Dubler R. Vázquez
  • Dulce María Naranjo
  • Dulce María Sotolongo Carrington
  • Duncan Campbell
  • Dunieska Castañeda Vega
  • Eberto García Abreu
  • Ed Newman
  • Ed Pilkington
  • Ed Power
  • Edel Lima
  • Edel Morales
  • Edelvis López Zaldívar
  • Edgar Borges
  • Eduardo Febbro
  • Eduardo Galeano
  • Eduardo Gil
  • Eduardo Herrera Herrera
  • Eduardo Herrera y Judith Alfonso Correa
  • Eduardo Jimenez Garcia
  • Eduardo Labrada
  • Eduardo Luis Martin
  • Eduardo Palomares Calderón
  • Eduardo Pinto Sánchez
  • Eduardo Rodríguez Baz
  • Eduardo Rodriguez-Bass
  • Eduardo Valera
  • Eduardo Vazquez Perez
  • Eglis Gainza Moreno
  • Eider La O Toledano
  • Eiko Carrasco
  • Eileen Molina Fernández
  • Eileen Sosin Martinez
  • Ekaterina Rivera Zvezdina
  • Eladio Rivadulla Martínez
  • Elena Milián
  • Elena Pita
  • Elena Poniatowkska
  • Eliades Acosta Matos
  • Elio Fidel López
  • Elizabeth Alvarez Velázquez
  • Elizabeth Bello Exposito
  • Elizabeth Diaz
  • Elizabeth Díaz / Ernesto López
  • Elizabeth Jensen
  • Elizabeth López Corzo
  • Elizabeth Mirabal Llorens
  • Elizabeth Mirabal Llorens and Carlos Velazco Fernández (Students of Journalism)
  • Elizabeth Reyes Tasé
  • Elsa Claro
  • Elsa Maria Cortes
  • Elsy Fors
  • Elvira Orozco Vital
  • Elvira Orozco Vital and Alexis Castañeda
  • Elvis Gil Domínguez
  • Embacuba Granada
  • Emilio Javier Rodriguez and Raquel Díaz
  • Emily Cary
  • Emir Garcia Meralla
  • Enma Sofía Morales
  • Enrique Cirules
  • Enrique Giniebra Giniebra
  • Enrique González-Manet
  • Enrique Milánes León
  • Enrique Ojito Linares
  • Enrique Ojito Linares and Arelys García Acosta
  • Enrique Pérez Díaz
  • Enrique Portuondo
  • Enrique Prado Rio
  • Enrique Roman
  • Enrique Ubieta Gómez
  • Enrique Valdés
  • Eric Adrián Pérez
  • Eric Green and Barbara Lubin
  • Ericka Montaño Garfias
  • Erika Kinetz
  • Ernesto A. Mayonada Faunde
  • Ernesto Juan Castellanos
  • Ernesto Juan Castellanos
  • Ernesto Montero Acuña
  • Ernesto Sierra
  • Ernesto Vera
  • Ernie Anatos
  • Errol Nazareth
  • Esperanza Soler
  • Esteban Israel
  • Esteban Magnani
  • Esteban Pardo
  • Estela Ferrer Raveiro
  • Estela McCollin Williams
  • Esther De la Cruz and Ana Isa Vidal
  • Esther Lilian González de la Fuente
  • Esther Pérez
  • Esther Suárez Durán
  • Estrella Díaz
  • Estrella Díaz and Mario Jorge Muñoz
  • Ethan Merrick
  • Eugene Hernández
  • Eugenio Marron Casanova
  • Eugenio Perez Almarales
  • Eusebio Leal Spengler
  • Eusebio Leal Spengler *
  • Eva Dolz
  • Eva Usi
  • Eyder de la O Toledano
  • F. Eduardo Valera
  • Fabiola Sánchez
  • Fabiola Santiago
  • Fany Rodríguez
  • Fausto Triana
  • Federico Kukso
  • Felipe Dulzaides
  • Felipe Pérez Roque
  • Felix Bolaños
  • Felix Capote
  • Felix Flores Varona
  • Felix Lopez
  • Félix López and Lourdes Pérez
  • Félix Milián
  • Félix Ramón Lobaina and Yuniesky Luis
  • Fernanda Ezabella
  • Fernando Carr Parúas
  • Fernando Dávalos
  • Fernando Donate Ochoa
  • Fernando Félix López
  • Fernando Garcia
  • Fernando González
  • Fernando León Jacomino
  • Fernando López Duarte
  • Fernando Martínez Heredia
  • Fernando Padilla Gonzalez
  • Fernando Pérez
  • Fernando Ravsberg
  • Fernando Rodriguez Sereno
  • Fernando Rodríguez Sosa
  • Fernando Rodríguez Sosa
  • Fernando Valdés Fré
  • Fiachra Gibbons
  • Fidel Castro Ruz
  • Fidel Díaz
  • Fidel Réndon Matienzo
  • Fidel Vascos
  • Fidèle Diarra, Ambassador of Mali to Cuba
  • Fina García Marruz
  • Fintan Vallely
  • Flor de Paz
  • Francisco Delgado Márquez
  • Francisco Forteza
  • Francisco G. Navarro
  • Francisco Lopez Sacha
  • Francisco Rey Alfonso
  • Francisco Samaniego
  • Francisco Sánchez
  • Francisnet Díaz Rondón
  • Franciso Ramírez
  • Frank Agüero Gómez
  • Frank Martín
  • Frank Martinez Hraste
  • Frank Padrón
  • Frank Rich
  • Freddy Pérez Cabrera
  • Freddy Pérez Pérez
  • Freya Matos Martínez
  • Froilan Parra Suarez
  • Gabriel Davalos
  • Gabriel Garcia Galano
  • Gabriel García Márquez
  • Gabriel Molina
  • Gabriela Ávila Gómez
  • Gabriela Flynn
  • Gabriela Sotolongo
  • Gaínza Moreno
  • Gary Marx
  • Gary Smith
  • Gary Younge
  • Gaudencio Rodríguez Santana
  • Gelsy Rodríguez Rivero, Student of Journalism
  • Georgina Saldierna
  • Georgina Saldierna
  • Georgina Suárez Hernández
  • Georgina Torriente
  • Gerardo E. Chávez Spínola
  • Gerardo González Quesada
  • Gerardo Hernández
  • Germán Sánchez
  • German Veloz Placencia
  • Geysell Cisneros Martínez
  • Gilbert Brownstone
  • Gilbert Brownstone
  • Gilberto González
  • Gilda Veloz
  • Gina Picart
  • Gioia Minuti
  • Giovanni Fernández Valdés
  • Giselle Bello
  • Giusette León García
  • Giusette León García
  • Giusette León García
  • Giusette Leon Garcia
  • Gladis Ramos Leal
  • Gladys Deus Braña
  • Gladys González
  • Gladys González and Yoel Lugones Vázquez
  • Gladys Rodríguez
  • Gladys Rodríguez Ferrero
  • Glenda Boza Ibarra
  • Glenda Pardo
  • Grace Edwards
  • Graciela Berger Wegsman
  • Graciela Chailloux
  • Graciela Guerrero Garay
  • Graziella Pogolotti
  • Gregorio Ortega
  • Greity Gonzalez Rivera
  • Gretchen Martínez
  • Gretel Cruz Torres
  • Gretel Heredia Viltres
  • Grisell Pupo Montes de Oca
  • Gualveris Rosales Sánchez
  • Guesty Interian Navarro
  • Guille Vilar
  • Guille Vilar
  • Guillermo Rivero de la Rosa
  • Guillermo Rodríguez Rivera
  • Guillermo Rodríguez Rivera
  • Gustavo Rivera
  • Hamida Ghafour
  • Hannah Waldram
  • Harald Neuber
  • Harlan Jacobson
  • Harold Pinter
  • Harry Belafonte
  • Héctor Antón Castillo
  • Héctor Carballo Hechavarría
  • Héctor García
  • Hector Pavon
  • Héctor Reyes Tarragó
  • Heidy González Cabrera
  • Heidy Morin Rueda
  • Heinz Dieterich Steffan
  • Helen H. Hormilla
  • Helen Hérnandez
  • Helen Musa
  • Helen Musa
  • Helen Tunnah
  • Helena Payne
  • Helmo Hernández
  • Helson Hernandez
  • Henry Constantain Ferreiro
  • Heriberto Feraudy Espino
  • Heriberto Rosabal
  • Herminio González Rodriguez
  • Hernán Bosch Caballero
  • Hernando Calvo Ospinas
  • Hernando Salazar
  • Hervé Fischer
  • Hilario Rosete Silva
  • Hilda Lidia Heredia
  • Hilda Maria Alonso Gonzalez
  • Hilda Rosa Guerra, Journalism Student
  • Hilia Tamayo Batista
  • Hiram Hernández
  • Horacio Bilbao
  • Howell Llewellyn
  • Hugh Davies
  • Hugo Edelqui Cruz
  • Hugo García
  • Humberto Concepción Toledo
  • Humberto Manduley Lopez
  • Humberto Márquez
  • Humberto Olmos Martínez
  • Humberto Solas
  • Humberto Zamora Fajardo
  • Ian James
  • Ian Kucerak
  • Ian Malinow
  • Ian Youngs
  • Ibis Isabel Frade Brito(Journalism student)
  • Idalma Menéndez Febles
  • Idalmis León Solar
  • Idania Machado
  • Idania Rodríguez
  • Idania Rodríguez Echevarria
  • Idania Trujillo and Daína Caballero
  • Idania Trujillo de la Paz
  • Idelenia Hernández
  • Ifraín Sacerio and Pedro de la Hoz
  • Ignacio Cruz Ortega
  • Ignacio M. Doubrechatt
  • Igor Rantes
  • Igrim L. Castillo and Martha I. Andrés, Journalism Students
  • Ihsan Youssef
  • Ileana Borges Díaz
  • Ileana Ferrer Fonte
  • Ileana González
  • Ileana Medina Amaro
  • Ileana Rodriguez
  • Ileana Sifonte Leon
  • Iliana García García
  • Iliana Hautrive
  • Ilianed Leyva Fonseca
  • Ilsa Rodriguez
  • Imeldo Alvarez García
  • Indira Román
  • Indira Santana
  • Ingrid Gonzalez Fajardo
  • Irana Veliz López
  • Irina Echarry
  • Irina Pacheco Valera
  • Iris Armas Padrino
  • Iris de Armas Padrino
  • Iris Hernández Rodriguez
  • Iris Rodriguez
  • Iroel Sanchez
  • Isaac Ramírez
  • Isaac Zamora Suarez
  • Isabel Cristina Hamze
  • Isabel Garcia-Zarza
  • Isabel María Pérez Pérez
  • Isabel Monal
  • Isabel Penrose
  • Isabel Sánchez
  • Isabel Soto Mayedo
  • Isachi Fernandez
  • Isachi Fernández
  • Isairis Sosa Hernández
  • Isel Pérez Pérez
  • Isel Vega
  • Isidro Estrada
  • Isis Infante Ramírez
  • Isis María Allen
  • Isla Esquivel
  • Ismael Clark
  • Ismael González
  • Ismael S. Albelo
  • Israel Castellanos León
  • Israel Hernández Alvarez
  • István Mészáros
  • Ivan del Toro, Journalism Student
  • Iván Nápoles
  • Ivan Noel Orta Martín
  • Ivan Terrero
  • Ivet González Lemes
  • Ivett Körösi
  • Ivette Fernández
  • Ivette Romero
  • Ivón Peñalver
  • Ivonne Albelo Medina
  • J. A. Alfonso Roque
  • J. A. del Rosario
  • J. Araujo
  • J.R Fraguela
  • Jackson Browne
  • Jacmel Cuevas P.
  • Jaime Masó Torres
  • Jaime Sarusky
  • Jaisy Izquierdo
  • James C. McKinley Jr.
  • Jane Cornwell
  • Jane Franklin
  • Jane Rocca
  • Janet Smith
  • Janice Law
  • Janis Reyes
  • Jannette Mattsson
  • Jasmine Kripalani
  • Jason Cheah
  • Javier Clavelo
  • Javier Dueñas Oquendo
  • Javier Gras, Rosa Marquetti, Pedro de la Hoz
  • Javier Ortiz
  • Javier Roque Martinez
  • Javier Tamayo Ramírez
  • Jay Rodman
  • Jean Ortiz
  • Jean-Guy Allard
  • Jeanette Smith
  • Jeff Dayton-Johnson
  • Jeff Tamarkin
  • Jeffrey Kofman
  • Jeniscel Reinoso Carmona
  • Jenna Spinelle
  • Jennibet Hernández
  • Jennifer Dunning
  • Jennifer Row
  • Jennifer Socorro Ramon
  • Jennifer Veliz, Journalism Student
  • Jennifer Zielinski
  • Jenny Hernández
  • Jeremy London
  • Jesmir Varona Socias
  • Jesmir Varona Socias
  • Jessica Dawson
  • Jessica Fuentes Alvarez, Journalism Student
  • Jessica Rosero
  • Jesús Adonis Martínez
  • Jesús Arboleya Cervera
  • Jesús Arencibia Lorenzo
  • Jesus Becerra Dueñas
  • Jesús Curbelo García
  • Jesús Dueñas Becerra
  • Jesús Dueñas Becerra & Emma Almeda Marchese
  • Jesús Francisco Yagués Crespo
  • Jesús Guanche Pérez
  • Jesus Risquet
  • Jesús Rivera Rosado
  • Jill Sykes
  • Jim Harrington
  • Jim Sciutto and Jessica Hopper
  • Jo-Anne Rowney
  • Joan Sánchez
  • Joan Sánchez
  • Joanna Pérez Vidal
  • Joao Fariñas
  • Joaquin Borges Triana
  • Joaquin G. Santana
  • Joaquin Molines
  • Joaquin Oramas
  • Joaquin Riveri Tur and Jorge Luis González
  • Jocelyn Noveck
  • Joe Callahan 
  • Joel del Rio
  • Joel García
  • Joel Mayor Loran
  • Joel Mayor Loran and Omar Vazquez
  • Joel Michel Varona
  • Johanna Puyol
  • Johanna Puyol
  • John Adamian
  • John Adamian
  • John Anderson
  • John Brand
  • John Clewley
  • John Fordham
  • John Mckay
  • John Terauds
  • John Updike
  • Jon Henley
  • Jonathan Silberman
  • Jordanis Ricardo Pupo
    journalism student
  • Jorge Alberto Piñeiro(JAPE)
  • Jorge Angel Hernandez
  • Jorge Boccanera
  • Jorge Brooks Gremps
  • Jorge Calderón González
  • Jorge Domínguez Morado
  • Jorge Fiallo
  • Jorge García Orce
  • Jorge Garrido
  • Jorge Gómez Barata
  • Jorge Jorge González
  • Jorge Karel Leyva Rodríguez
  • Jorge Legañoa
  • Jorge Legañoa Alonso (Journalism Student)
  • Jorge Luis Batista
  • Jorge Luis González Ramirez
  • Jorge Luís Merecio Cautin
  • Jorge Luis Peix Agüero
  • Jorge Luis Peix Agüero and Otilio Rivero Delgado
  • Jorge Luis Rodríguez Aguilar
  • Jorge Luis Rodríguez González
  • Jorge Luna
  • Jorge Navarro Torres
  • Jorge Petinaud Martinez
  • Jorge Rivas Rodríguez
  • Jorge Smith
  • Jorge Smith Mesa
  • Jorge Tamayo
  • Jorge Villa
  • Jorgelina Guzmán Moré
  • José A. Martin
  • José Alejandro Rodriguez
  • José Angel Correa
  • José Antonio Fulgueiras
  • José Antonio Torres
  • José Armando Fernández Salazar
  • José Aurelio Paz
  • José Dos Santos
  • José Ernesto González
  • José Ernesto González
  • José Ignacio Martínez
  • José Ignacio Martínez
  • José Luis Díaz Grass
  • José Luis Estrada Betancourt
  • Jose Luis Estrada Betancourt and Jaisy Izquierdo
  • José Luis Estrada Betancourt and Randol Peresalas
  • José Luis Martínez Alejo
  • Jose Luis Paniagua
  • José Luis Peix Agüero
  • José Luis Prado Ramírez
  • Jose Luis Ramirez Prado
  • José Manuel Cordero
  • José Manuel García Suárez
  • José Manuel Simián
  • José Manuel Villabella
  • José Manuel Villabella
  • José Manuel Villalba
  • Jose Miguel Avila
  • José Miguel Rodríguez Ortiz
  • Jose Miguel Solis
  • José Pertierra
  • José Ramírez Pantoja
  • José Reyes Fortún
  • José Roberto Loo Vázquez
  • Jose Steinleger
  • Josefa Bracero
  • Josefina Arce
  • Josefina Ortega
  • Joseph Mutti
  • Joshua Lerner
  • Joshua Martínez
  • Josué Martínez
  • Juan Antonio Borrego
  • Juan Antonio Borrego and Calixto N. Llanes
  • Juan Carlos Díaz Guerrero
  • Juan Carlos Dominguez Taño
  • Juan Carlos Piedrahíta
  • Juan Cruz
  • Juan Diego Nusa Peñalver
  • Juan E. Batista Cruz
  • Juan E. Batista Cruz
  • Juan Eduardo Bernal Echemendia
  • Juan Emilio Friguls
  • Juan Farrell Villa
  • Juan Francisco Álvarez
  • Juan Gabriel Gordin 
  • Juan Gutiérrez Sastre
  • Juan Hernández Machado
  • Juan Leandro
  • Juan M. Garcia
  • Juan Manuel Montoto Pascual
  • Juan Manuel Olivares Chávez
  • Juan Morales Agüero
  • Juan Nicolás Padrón
  • Juan Pablo Carreras
  • Juan Páez Costa
  • Juan Piñera
  • Juan Sánchez
  • Juan Sardá Frouchtmann
  • Juan Sasturain
  • Juana Carrasco Martín
  • Juanita Conejero
  • Juanjo Castillo
  • Juanjo Robledo
  • Judith Mackrell
  • Judy Adams
  • Judy Cantor
  • Judy Cantor-Navas
  • Julia Le and Carol Muñoz Nieves
  • Julia Mirabal
  • Julian Lombardi
  • Julian Puig
  • Juliana Venero Bon
  • Julie Hunt
  • Julie Schwietert Collazo
  • Julien Neaves
  • Julieta García Rios
  • Julio C. Betancourt
  • Julio César Delgado Ramos
  • Julio Hernández Blanco
  • Julio Juan Leandro
  • Julio Llanes Hernández
  • Julio Martínez Molina
  • Julio Pérez
  • Justin Feinstein
  • Justo Planas
  • Juvenal Balan Neyra
  • Kabir Chibber
  • Kaloian Santos Cabrera
  • Kaloian Santos Cabrera, text and photos
  • Kaly Smith Llanes
  • Karelia Álvarez Rosell
  • Kareman Harak
  • Karina Durant
  • Karina Micheletto
  • Karina Paz
  • Karina Sotomayor
  • Karla Casillas Bermúdez
  • Kate Kellaway
  • Katherine Owen
  • Kathryn Greenway
  • Katia Camejo Montpeller
  • Katia Cárdenas
  • Katia Cardenas and Lilibeth Bermudez
  • Katia Montegudo
  • Katia Pupo Campoalegre
  • Katia Siberia Garcia
  • Katia Varela and Gustavo Lopez
  • Katiuska León
  • Kellie Schmitt
  • Kelly Heyboer
  • Ken Franckling
  • Kenneth Turan
  • Kevin Griffin
  • Kevin Lollar
  • Keyla Sánchez Vaquero
  • Kiara González Escobar
  • Kim Choe
  • Kimani Hernandez Garcia
  • Kristen Zambo
  • Lagarde
  • Laidi Fernández de Juan
  • Langston Newman
  • Laura Antillano
  • Laura Casey
  • Laura Counts
  • Laura de la Uz
  • Laura Falcoff
  • Laura Mendoza
  • Laura Patricia Burns
  • Lauren Gómez
  • Lawrence Van Gelder
  • Lázaro David Najarro Pujol
  • Lazaro Gonzalez
  • Lázaro J. González
  • Lázaro J. González González, Journalism student
  • Lázaro Silva
  • Lea Aneiro Rodríguez
  • Leandro Estupiñán
  • Leanet Aneiro Rodríguez
  • Leanne González
  • Lededra Marche
  • Lededra Marche
  • Lee Mergner
  • Leidys García Chico
  • Lemay Padron Oliveros
  • Leon Bezuidenhout
  • Leonardo Acosta
  • Leonardo Buenaventura
  • Leonardo Depestre Cantony
  • Leonardo Depestre Catony
  • Leonardo Gell Fernández-Cueto
  • Leonardo Mastrapa
  • Leonardo Padura Fuentes
  • Leonardo Pupo
  • Leonor de la Rosa
  • Leonor Marchante González
  • Leonor Santos
  • Leovani Garcia Olivarez
  • Lester Sibila Caraballo
  • Lester Vila
  • Leticia Guerra
  • Leticia Martínez
  • Lewis Segal
  • Leyanis Infante Curbelo
  • Leyla Leyva
  • Li-En-Chong
  • Liana Fleitas
  • Lianet Arias Sosa
  • Lianet Leandro Lopez
  • Lidia Esther Ochoa
  • Lidice Valenzuela
  • Liliam Lee Hernández
  • Liliam Marrero
  • Liliam Vargas
  • Liliana Martínez Polo
  • Liliana Molina
  • Liliana Molina Carbonell
  • Liliana Rodríguez Simón
  • Lilibeth Bermúdez and Katia Cárdenas
  • Lilien Aguilera Gonzalez
  • Lilieth Domínguez
  • Lilliam Riera
  • Lillian Álvarez Navarrete
  • Lina de Feria
  • Linda Barnard
  • Linda Gálvez
  • Linda Seaborn
  • Linda Valparaiso
  • Lino Betancourt Molina
  • Lino Luben Pérez
  • Liomán Lima
  • Lisandra Díaz Padrón, Journalism student
  • Lisandra Gómez Guerra
  • Lisandra Leyé del Toro
  • Lisandra Marene
  • Lisandra Puentes Valladares
  • Lisandra Romeo Matos
  • Lisandro Otero
  • Lisandro Otero *
  • Lisanka González Suárez
  • Lisbett Suarez Collado
  • Lisday Martínez
  • Liset Prego
  • Lisett Febles Barrios
  • Lissette Martín
  • Lisván Lescaille Durand
  • Liudmila Peña Herrera
  • Livhy Barceló Vázquez
  • Livia Rodríguez Delis
  • Llanisca Lugo
  • Lohania Aruca Alonso
  • Lola Zurbarán
  • Lorena Garrido
  • Louise Jury
  • Lourdes Chang
  • Lourdes Elena García Bereau
  • Lourdes Fernández Valhuerdi
  • Lourdes M. Benítez Cereijo
  • Lourdes Pérez Navarro
  • Lourdes Pichs
  • Lubia Ulloa Trujillo
  • Luca Telese
  • Lucia Arbolaez
  • Lucía C. Sanz Araujo
  • Luciano Castillo
  • Lucilo Tejera Díaz
  • Lucina Mell
  • Luis Alberto González Nieto
  • Luis Alberto Notario
  • Luis Alejandro Alfonso Peñate
  • Luis Alejandro Rivera Paredes
  • Luis Arasquitain
  • Luis Chirino
  • Luis Enrique Fragoso Casalvilla
  • Luis Enrique Melo
  • Luis Falcón
  • Luis Francisco Jacomino Suárez
  • Luis Hernández Serrano
  • Luis López Viera
  • Luis Machado Ordext
  • Luis Manuel Perez Boitel
  • Luis Melián
  • Luis Miranda
  • Luis Morales Blanco
  • Luis Orlando Antúnez
  • Luis Rafael
  • Luis Raul Vazquez Muñoz
  • Luis Rey Yero
  • Luis Sexto
  • Luis Suardíaz
  • Luis Toledo Sande
  • Luis Toledo Sande
  • Luisa Borges
  • Luisa María González García
  • Luisa T. Romero
  • Luz María Martínez
  • Luz Marina Fornieles Sanchez
  • Luzdeibys González Forcades
  • Lyda Borges
  • Lydia Esther Ochoa Peña
  • Lysbeth Daumont Robles
  • M. G. S
  • M. González
  • M. H. Lagarde
  • M.M. López
  • Ma. Eulalia Douglas
  • Mabel Machado
  • Mabel Olalde Azpiri
  • Mabel Pérez Quintana, Journalism Student
  • Madeleine Rodriguez Pernas
  • Madeleine Sautié Rodríguez
  • Madeleine Sautie Rodriguez and Lazaro J. Gonzalez
  • Madeleine Sautié Rodríguez and Michel Hernandez
  • Madelín Ramirez
  • Madelis Sorio Beatón
  • Magaly Cabrales
  • Magaly Zamora
  • Magda Resik Aguirre
  • Magda Resik Aguirre and Yoel Lugones Vázquez
  • Mahee Anton
  • Maide Liliam Pena Ochoa
  • Mailan Álvarez and Giselle Bello
  • Mailenys Oliva Ferrales
  • Mairelys Peraza
  • Maite González
  • Maité Hernández Lorenzo
  • Maite Junco and Albor Ruiz with Paul Colford
  • Maite Lopez Pino
  • Maïté Piñero
  • Maivy Cruz González
  • Malena Forsare
  • Malvy Souto
  • Mando Arreola
  • Manuel Alberto Ramy
  • Manuel Cabieses Donoso
  • Manuel Délano
  • Manuel E. Yepe
  • Manuel Echevarría Gómez
  • Manuel Fernández Figueroa
  • Manuel Guerrero
  • Manuel Lopez Oliva
  • Manuel Montoto Pascual
  • Manuel Valdes Paz
  • Manuel Vazquez
  • Manuel Villabella
  • Manuela Rey
  • Mar Román
  • Marcela Valente
  • Marcia Jiménez
  • Marco Lopez
  • Marcos Alfonso
  • Marcos Alfonso
  • Marcos Antonio Tamames Herdenson
  • Marcos Mayer
  • Marelys Valencia
  • Margarita Barrio
  • Margarita Barrios
  • Margarita Barrios and Hugo García
  • Margarita Gónzalez Lorente
  • Margarita Torres
  • Mari Luz Borrego
  • Maria Alejandra Casanova Garcia, journalism student
  • María Antonia Borroto
  • Maria Antonia Medina Telles
  • María Argelia Vizcaino
  • Maria Begoña Arostegui
  • María Carla Gárciga / Liliana Molina
  • Maria Carla Gárciga and Paula Companioni
  • María Carla Garciga Rodríguez
  • María Colunga and Yurislenia Pardo (Journalism students)
  • María de la Soledad
  • María de las Nieves Galá
  • María del Carmen Díaz Díaz
  • Maria del Carmen Mestas
  • María del Carmen Soto
  • María del Carmen Vasallo
  • María del Pilar Díaz Castañon
  • Maria Elena Alvarez Ponce
  • María Elena Balán
  • María Elena Capote
  • Maria Elena Mendiola
  • Maria Elena Pacheco Rodríguez
  • María Elena Vermudez
  • María Fernanda Abad
  • María Fernanda Ferrer
  • Maria Grant
  • María Grant
  • Maria Irene Maxan de la Celda
  • Maria Isabel Abeledo
  • María Isabel Perdigón
  • María Jorge Muñoz
  • María Julia Mayoral
  • Maria Julia Mayoral
  • María Laura Riba
  • María Luisa Cabrera
  • Maria Luisa Cabrera Ch.
  • María Marlene Vázquez Pérez
  • María Martínez
  • Maria Nava
  • María Regla Figueroa
  • Maria Victoria González Clavero
  • María Victoria Pardo
  • Maria Welsh
  • Mariagny Taset Aguilar
  • Mariagny Taset Agular
  • Mariana Camejo
  • Marianela Dufflar
  • Marianela González
  • Marianela Gonzalez
  • Marianela Martin Gonzalez
  • Maribel Acosta
  • Maribel Diaz
  • Maribel Duarte González
  • Maribel Flamand
  • Mariel Garza
  • Mariela Peña Seguí
  • Marilyn Bobes
  • Marilyn Bobes
  • Marilyn Bobes
  • Marilyn Garbey
  • Marina Menéndez Quintero
  • Marina Pacini
  • Mario Casasús
  • Mario Cremata Ferrán
  • Mario de Queiroz
  • Mario Esquivel
  • Mario Humberto Garrido
  • Mario Jorge Muñoz
  • Mario Masvidal Saavedra
  • Mario Mencia
  • Mario Vizcaino Serrat
  • Marisa Jacobs
  • Marisela Presa Sage
  • Maritza Barranco
  • Maritza Ceballo Acosta
  • Maritza de la Uz Contreras
  • Maritza Mariana
  • Maritza Mariana Hernández
  • Maritza Padilla
  • Marjorie Peregrín
  • Mark Hudson
  • Mark Monahan
  • Mark Rushton
  • Mark Weisbrot
  • Marle Herrera Matos
  • Marleidy Muñoz Fleites
  • Marlen Borges
  • Marlene Montoya
  • Marlene Rodríguez
  • Marlene Vázquez Pérez
  • Marlín Caddell
  • Marnie Fiallo Gómez
  • Marnie Fiallo Goméz and Navil García Alfonso
  • Marta Angulo
  • Marta Cabrales
  • Marta Denis Valle
  • Marta Gómez Ferrals
  • Marta Gomez Ferrals
  • Marta Hernandez
  • Marta María Borras Francisco
  • Marta María Montejo
  • Marta Miranda
  • Marta Rojas
  • Marta Sánchez
  • Marta Valdés
  • Martha Cabrales Arias
  • Martha María Sánchez
  • Martha Martínez Duliet
  • Martha Mary Montejo
  • Martha Oneida Perez Cortes
  • Martha Rios
  • Martha Sarabia
  • Martín Corona Jerez
  • Martin Hacthoun
  • Martin Knelman
  • Maru Curtius
  • Mary Alice Waters
  • Mary Ann Bird
  • Mary Ann Bird
  • Mary Delgado
  • Mary Delys Cross Palenzuela
  • Mary Luz Borrego
  • Mary Luz Borrego
  • Mary Murray
  • Masiel Fernández Bolaños
  • Matt Trueman
  • Matthew Wanniski
  • Mauricio Nuñez Rodriguez
  • Max Diaz
  • May Gamboa Cruz
  • Maya Quiroga
  • Maya Quiroga Paneque
  • Maydelis Gómez Samón
  • Maykel Reyes Leyva
  • Mayle González Mirabal
  • Maylenis González Mirabal
  • Maylin Alonso Chiong
  • Maylin Legañoa
  • Maylín Vidal
  • Mayra Álvarez Díaz
  • Mayra Cue Sierra
  • Mayra Garcia
  • Mayra García Cardentey
  • Mayra García Cardentey
  • Mayra Pardillo Gómez
  • Mayra Pombo
  • Mayra Viñalet Navarro
  • Mayra Yokel
  • Maysy Martínez Izaguirre
  • Mayté Madruga Hernández
  • Mayte María Jiménez
  • Mayte Maria Jimenez, Journalism Student
  • Meesha Nehru
  • Melbys Nicola Álvarez
  • Melissa Cordero Novo
  • Melvis Sarduy Castellanos
  • Mercedes Borges Bartutis
  • Mercedes Ezquiaga
  • Mercedes Santos Moray
  • Merry Mac Masters
  • Mery Delgado
  • Michael Barnet Lanza
  • Michael Church
  • Michael Crabb
  • Michael Hernandez and Sonia Sanchez
  • Michael Moore
  • Michael Rosen
  • Michel Dugré
  • Michel García Cruz
  • Michel Hernández
  • Michel Hernández
  • Michel Porcherón
  • Michelle Morgante
  • Michelle Morgante
  • Miguel A. Gaínza Chacón
  • Miguel Alvarez
  • Miguel Ángel Valdés
  • Miguel Angel Valdés Lizano
  • Miguel Barnet
  • Miguel Cabrera
  • Miguel Cabrera, Historian of the National Ballet of Cuba
  • Miguel Carrandi Castro
  • Miguel Comellas
  • Miguel del Padrón
  • Miguel Díaz Nápoles
  • Miguel Ernesto Gómez Masjuan
  • Miguel Febles Hernández
  • Miguel Fernández Martínez
  • Miguel G. Valdés Pérez
  • Miguel Gerardo
  • Miguel Gibson
  • Miguel Helft
  • Miguel Hernández
  • Miguel Hernandez Sanchez
  • Miguel Lozano
  • Miguel Ramírez
  • Miguel Terry Valdespino
  • Mike Fuller
  • Mike Hobart
  • Mike Phillips
  • Mike Taber
  • Milagros Pino Fu
  • Milan Paz
  • Mildred de la Torre Molina
  • Mildrey Ponce
  • Milena Recio
  • Mileyda Menéndez
  • Minoska Cadalso Navarro
  • Miozotis Fabelo Pinares
  • Miraida Medina
  • Miralys Sánchez Pupo
  • Mireya Castañeda
  • Mireya Ojeda Cabrera
  • Miriam Escudero, Musicologist Ars Longa Group
  • Miriam Pérez Casanellas
  • Míriam Zito
  • Miriela Fernández Lozano
  • Mirta Yañes
  • Mirtha Lamothe Iglesias
  • Miryorly García Prieto
  • Misleydis González Ávila
  • Moises Saab
  • Monica Alfonso
  • Mónica Brizuela Chirino
  • Mónica Lezcano Lavandera
  • Mónica Montes Medina
  • Mónica R. Rabelo
  • Nadia Herrada
  • Nancy Lescaille
  • Nancy Maestigue Prieto
  • Nancy Morejón
  • Nancy Ramsey
  • Nancy Zamora
  • Nara Araújo
  • Narmys Cándano Garcia and Lisandra Puentes Valladares
  • Nastassia Astrasheuskaya
  • Natacha Reyes Escobar
  • Natalia Cano
  • Nayara Tardo
  • Ned Sublette
  • Nelson Alejandro Rodriguez Roque
  • Nelson Dominguez Morera
  • Nelson García Santos
  • Nelson Herrera Ysla
  • Nelson P. Váldes
  • Nelson Paez del Amo
  • Nestor Marin
  • Néstor Núñez
  • Nestor Rius Martínez
  • Nestor Rosa-Marbrell
  • Niall O´dowd
  • Nicole Fiorella
  • Nidia Díaz
  • Nidia Rodríguez León
  • Niurka Alfonso
  • Niurka Alfonso/Rafael Lam
  • Niurka Rivero
  • Noam Chomsky
  • Noel Bonilla-Chongo
  • Noel Martínez Martínez
  • Noely López
  • Noguera Ricano Yetel
  • Nora Amalia Vargas Léon
  • Nora Rodríguez Calzadilla
  • Nora Sosa
  • Norge Espinosa Mendoza
  • Norma Niurka
  • Norman Mailer
  • Nubia Piqueras Grosso
  • Nurien de Armas Rodríguez
  • Nyliam Garcia Velazquez
  • Nylian Vázquez García
  • Octavio Borges and Yaimara Villaverde
  • Octavio Borges Pérez
  • Odalis Riquenes Cutino
  • Odalis Riquenes Cutiño
  • Odalys Buscarón
  • Odalys Cimadevilla
  • Odalys Miranda
  • Odalys Troya Flores
  • Odelín Sánchez Caballero
  • Ofelia Sandar Valle
  • Ofelia Sandar Valle and Yoel Lugones Vázquez
  • Ofelio Peláez
  • Olga Crespo
  • Olga Diaz Ruiz
  • Olga Lidia Pérez
  • Olga Malo de Molina
  • Olga Sánchez Guevara
  • Oliva Terga Amarilis
  • Oliverio Comte
  • Olivia Pérez
  • Omar González
  • Omar Perdomo
  • Omar Valiño
  • Omar Vázquez
  • Omar Vázquez and Michel Hernández
  • Omar Vázquez and Ricardo López Hevia
  • Onedys Calvo and María Lucía Bernal
  • Oneidys Torres
  • Onelia Chaveco
  • Oni Acosta Llerena
  • Orfilio Peláez
  • Orfilio Peláez, Joel Mayor Lorana and Pedro de la Hoz
  • Orieta Cordeiro
  • Orlando Durán Hernández
  • Orlando Guevara Núñez
  • Orlando Matos
  • Orsanhec Plaza
  • Ortelio Gonzalez and Miguel Febles
  • Ortelio González Martínez
  • Ortelio Rodríguez Alba
  • Oscar Ferrer Carbonell
  • Oscar Luis López
  • Oscar Padilla Díaz
  • Oscar Ranzani
  • Oslaydi Perera Mira
  • Osmany González Tocabens
  • Osvaldo Cano
  • Osvaldo Cano
  • Osvaldo Cardosa Samón
  • Osvaldo Martinez
  • Osviel Castro Medel
  • Otmaro Rodríguez
  • Ovidio Acosta
  • Pablo Armando Fernández
  • Pablo Cabero Viamontes
  • Pablo Cabero Viamontes
  • Pablo García Gámez and Maite Junco
  • Pablo Osoria Ramírez
  • Pablo Pasanovas
  • Pablo Soroa and Pablo Osoria
  • Pablo Soroa Fernández
  • Pamela Grcic
  • Paola López Castillo
  • Paquita Armas Fonseca
  • Paquita Armas Fonseca
  • Pascual Serrano
  • Pastor Batista and Alexis Roya
  • Pastor Batista Valdés
  • Pastor Batista Váldez
  • Pastor Guzmán Castro
  • Pastor Valle-Garay
  • Pat M. Holt
  • Patricia Cáceres
  • Patricia Grogg
  • Patricia Monje
  • Patricia Motola
  • Patrick O´Neill
  • Paul Harris
  • Paula Companioni Reyes
  • Paula Companioni Reyes and Annet Martínez Hernández, Journalism Students
  • Paula Remis
  • Pausides Cabrera
  • Pavel García
  • Pavel García
  • Pavel Giroud
  • Pedro Antonio Garcia
  • Pedro Cubas
  • Pedro de la Hoz
  • Pedro de la Hoz and Julio Martinez Molina
  • Pedro de la Hoz and Omar Vázquez
  • Pedro Falcón
  • Pedro Garcia Espinosa
  • Pedro Llanes
  • Pedro Mora
  • Pedro Norat Soto
  • Pedro Otero
  • Pedro P. Prada
  • Pedro Pablo Rodriguez
  • Pedro Pablo Rodríguez
  • Pedro Pablo Rodríguez*
  • Pedro Péglez González
  • Pedro Quiroga Jiménez
  • Pedro R. Noa Romero
  • Pedro Rioseco
  • Pepe Murrieta
  • Peter Bell
  • Peter Bradshaw
  • Peter Culshaw
  • Peter Orsi
  • Philip Augustine
  • Philip Schmidt
  • Pia Catton
  • Pía Lundberg
  • Pieter Tesch
  • Pinto Ferreira
  • Píter Ortega Nuñez
  • Professor Alberto Quirantes*
  • Pupo Conde
  • R Ravichandran
  • R. A. Hernández
  • R. V. M.
  • R.D.Rojas
  • Rachael Hereford
  • Rachel D. Rojas
  • Rachel Dominguez
  • Rachel Susana Diez Hechavarría
  • Raciel del Toro
  • Radamés Giro
  • Rafael Alejandro González Escalona, student of Journalism
  • Rafael Daniel
  • Rafael de Águila
  • Rafael de la Osa Díaz
  • Rafael Duharte Jiménez
  • Rafael Gordo Nuñez, student of Journalism
  • Rafael Grillo
  • Rafael Hernández
  • Rafael Jesús Morena
  • Rafael Lam
  • Rafael Ramirez
  • Rafael Rivero
  • Rafael Rodríguez Pérez (Estudiante de Periodismo)
  • Rafaela Manso
  • Raisa Pages
  • Raktima Bose
  • Ramiro Burr
  • Ramón Barreras Ferrán
  • Ramon F. Cala
  • Ramón Labañino
  • Ramona Wadi
  • Ramsay Short
  • Randol Peresalas
  • Randy Saborit Mora
  • Raphael de la Osa Díaz
  • Raquel Arteaga
  • Raquel Jacomino
  • Raquel Maria Garcia Alvarez
  • Raquel Marrero Yanes
  • Raquel Martoni
  • Raquel Sierra
  • Raúl Alejandro del Pino Salfran
  • Raúl Cabrera Cruz
  • Raúl Ernesto Colón Rodríguez
  • Raúl Estrada Zamora
  • Raul Fuillerat Alfonso
  • Raul García Alvarez
  • Raúl Martell
  • Raúl P. Cotarelo
  • Raul Roa Kourí
  • Raúl Suárez
  • Rayna Carmona
  • Raynald C. Rivera
  • Raynor Rivera Licea
  • Raysa Mestril Gutiérrez
  • Rebeca Mauleón
  • Rebecca Dince and Patrice Taddonio
  • Reed Johnson
  • Regla Zulueta
  • Reina Hernández
  • Reina Madariaga
  • Reina María Hernández
  • Reinaldo González Villalonga
  • René Anillo
  • René Castaño
  • René Choong
  • René González
  • René Pérez Valdés
  • René Tamayo
  • René Tamayo León
  • René Vázquez Díaz
  • Review by Josh Suppan
  • Reynaldo Cruz Díaz
  • Reynaldo González
  • Reynold Rassi
  • Ricardo Alarcón
  • Ricardo Alarcón de Quesada
  • Ricardo Alonso
  • Ricardo Alonso Venereo
  • Ricardo López Hevia
  • Ricardo Potts
  • Ricardo Roberto Oropesa Fernandez
  • Ricardo Viñalet
  • Rigoberto Ricardo and Milena García
  • Rine Leal
  • Rob Sequin
  • Robert B.Reich
  • Robert Becker
  • Robert Koehler
  • Roberto Bastidas
  • Roberto Castellanos
  • Roberto Chile
  • Roberto Cobas Amate
  • Roberto Díaz Martorell
  • Roberto F. Campos
  • Roberto Fernandez Retamar
  • Roberto Hernandez
  • Roberto Hernández Solano
  • Roberto Jesús Hernández Hernández
  • Roberto Márquez
  • Roberto Méndez Martínez
  • Roberto Miguel Torres Barbán
  • Roberto Molina Hernandez
  • Roberto Morejón
  • Roberto Ortiz del Toro
  • Roberto Pérez Betancourt
  • Roberto Rodríguez Menéndez
  • Roberto Salomón
  • Roberto Suarez
  • Robin Denselow
  • Rocío Trujillo Olivares
  • Rodolfo Santovenia
  • Rodolfo Walsh
  • Rodolfo Zamora Rielo
  • Rogelio del Río
  • Rogelio Martínez Furé
  • Rogelio Serrano Pérez
  • Rogelio Viera
  • Roger Aguilera
  • Roger Ebert
  • Róger Rodríguez Martín
  • Roland J. C. Breton
  • Rolando Alvarez Estevez
  • Rolando Álvarez Estévez and Martha Guzmán
  • Rolando Julio Rensoli Medina
  • Rolando López del Amo
  • Rolando López del Amo
  • Rolando Pérez Betancourt
  • Rolando Silven Laffita
  • Romaana Naidoo
  • Ron Menchacha
  • Ronal Suárez Ramos
  • Ronald Suarez Rivas
  • Ronald Suarez, Freddy Perez and Armando Saez
  • Rory Cellan-Jones
  • Rosa Ana Dueñas
  • Rosa Cristina Báez Valdés
  • Rosa María Cruz Fernández
  • Rosa María de Lahaye Guerra
  • Rosa María Fernández Sofía
  • Rosa María González López
  • Rosa Miriam Elizalde
  • Rosa Raydán
  • Rosa Rodríguez G.
  • Rosabel Valdes Laù
  • Rosario F. Jacomino
  • Rose Ana Berbeo
  • Rosella Vodret
  • Rosemary Rodríguez
  • Roxana Moreno Castañedo
  • Roxana Rodríguez
  • Roxanna Núñez Wilson
  • Roylan Pardo
  • Rozana Zamora Fernández, Journalism student
  • Rubén Darío Salazar
  • Rubén Padron Astorga
  • Rubén Pino Martínez
  • Rubén Ricardo Infante
  • Ruben Rodriguez
  • Rubén Sánchez Rivero
  • Rubén Sicilia
  • Rubén Silié
  • Rubicel González González
  • Rubiel de la Cruz Rabí
  • Rufino del Valle
  • Rufo Caballero
  • Sabrina Duarte
  • Sadis Blanco
  • Sahiliy Tabares
  • Sahily Tabares
  • Saili Dominguez Cruz
  • Salim Lamrani
  • Salvador Arias
  • Salvador Bueno
  • Salvador Capote
  • Sam Alabaz
  • Samuel Fure Davis
  • Sandi Gerjevic
  • Sandra Álvarez Ramírez
  • Sandra Flounders
  • Sandra Mustelier Ayala
  • Sandy Carbonell
  • Santiago Giordano
  • Santos Hechevarría
  • Sara Benitez
  • Sara Estevez
  • Sara Gebhardt
  • Sarah Frater
  • Sarah Paz Martín
  • Sarah Stevens
  • Sarahí García Contreras
  • Saul Landau
  • Sayli Sosa Barceló
  • Sebastien Marotte
  • Senen Suarez Fernandez
  • Senén Suárez Hernández
  • Sergio Berrocal
  • Sergio Martinez Martinez
  • Sergio Núñez Martínez
  • Sergio Valdés Bernal
  • Several authors
  • Several authors
  • Shannon Proudfoot
  • Sharon Olds
  • Sharon Waxman
  • Sheyla Delgado Guerra
  • Sheyla Valladares Quevedo
  • Sid Smith
  • Siddhartha Mitter
  • Sigfredo Ariel
  • Silvia Barthelemy
  • Silvia Castro
  • Silvia Durán Molina
  • Silvia Johoy
  • Silvina Santillan
  • Silvio Gonzalez
  • Silvio Rodríguez
  • Simon Woller
  • Sinay Céspedes Moreno
  • Sinthia Sánchez
  • Sissi Arencibia
  • Sofia Grandes
  • Solangel Sánchez Aguilera
  • Sommer Tothill
  • Sonia Sánchez
  • Sonia Sánchez and Michel Hernández
  • Sonnia Moro
  • Sophia Bradshaw
  • Stephanie Johns
  • Stephen Fay
  • Stephen Gibbs
  • Stephen Kinzer
  • Steven Jackson
  • Sudhanva Deshpande
  • Sue Pleming
  • Suleydis Casa del Valle Tasé
  • Sundred Suzarte Medina
  • Sunia Santiesteban
  • Surnai Benítez
  • Susadny González Rodríguez
  • Susan Fernández
  • Susan Reiter
  • Susan Ward Davies
  • Susana Alfonso and María Caridad Guindo (Journalism students)
  • Susana Alfonso and María Caridad Guindo, Journalism students
  • Susana Alfonso Tamayo
  • Susana Alfonso Tamayo(Journalism student)
  • Susana Gómez Bugallo
  • Susana Lee
  • Susana Méndez
  • Susana Muñoz
  • Susana Pérez Gil
  • Susana Tesoro
  • Susannah Clapp
  • Susel Céspedes (Journalist Student)
  • Susel Santana Echemendía
  • Suzanne Goldenberg
  • Syed Azwan Syed Ali
  • Synaley Hernan
  • Tamara Roselló Reina
  • Tan Karr Wei
  • Tangeni Amupadhi Windhoek
  • Tania Chappi
  • Tania Salvador
  • Tayli R. Sánchez Zúñiga
  • Teresa de Jesus Pacheco
  • Teresa de Jesús Torres and Marjorie Peregrín
  • Teresa de Jesús Torres Espinosa
  • Teresa Valenzuela
  • Teresita Hernández*
  • Teresita Jorge
  • Teresita Jorge Carpio
  • Theresa Smith
  • Thiago de Mello
  • Tim Russert
  • Tim Weber
  • Tino Manuel
  • Tirso Mastrapa Ardite
  • TJNelson
  • Tomas Armenteros Crespo
  • Tomás Toledo Batard
  • Toni Basanta.
  • Toni Pinelli
  • Toni Piñera
  • Toni Piñera
  • Toni Pradas
  • Tracey Eaton
  • Travis Wilkerson
  • Tricia Olszewski
  • Tricia Olszewski
  • Ulises Canales
  • Ulises Estrada Lescaille
  • Urbino Amaya Acosta
  • Uriel Medina
  • V.M. Niño
  • Vacili P. M.
  • Valentin Nesovski
  • Van Khoa
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